Computer programming language can be
classified into two major categories:
- Low Level Languages
- High Level Languages
Low Level Languages:
The languages which
use only primitive operations of the computer are known as low language. In
these languages, programs are written by means of the memory and registers
available on the computer. Since the architecture of computer differs from one
machine to another, so far each type of computer there is a separate low level
programming language. In the other words, Programs written in one low level
language of one, architectural can’t be ported on any other machine dependent
languages. Examples are Machine Language and Assembly Language.
a) Machine Language:
In machine language program, the computation is
based on binary numbers. All the instructions including operations, registers,
data and memory locations are given in there binary equivalent.
The machine directly understands this language by
virtue of its circuitry design so these programs are directly executable on the
computer without any translations. This makes the program execution very fast.
Machine languages are also known as first generation languages.
b) Assembly Language:
Assembly languages are also known as second
generation languages. These languages substitutes alphabetic or numeric symbols
for the binary codes of machine language. That is, we can use mnemonics for all
opcodes, registers and for the memory locations which provide us with a
facility to write reusable code in the form of macros. Has two parts, one is
macro name and the other is macro body which contains the line of instructions.
A macro can be called at any point of the program by its name to use the
instruction. A macro can be called at any point of the program by its name to
use the instructions given in the macro repetitively.
These languages require a translator known as
“Assembler” for translating the program code written in assembly language to
machine language. Because computer can interpret only the machine code
instruction, once the translation is completed the program can be executed.
High Level Languages:
All high level language is procedure-oriented
language and is intended to be machine independent. Programs are written in
statements akin to English language, a great advantage over mnemonics of
assembly languages require languages use mnemonics of assembly language. That
is, the high level languages use natural language like structures. These
languages require translators (compilers and interpreters) for execution. The
programs written in a high level language can be ported on any computer, that’s
why these languages are known as machine independent. The early high level
languages come in third generation of languages, COBOL, BASIC, APL, etc.
These languages enable the programmer to write
instruction using English words and familiar mathematical symbols which makes
it easier than technical details of the computer. It makes the programs more
FORTRAN is an
imperative computer programming
language and also considered general purpose and procedural. It was developed
in the 1950s by International Business Machines Corporation (IBM)
and was intended for use in scientific and engineering
related applications. Since its design, Fortran has been steadily used for
scientific and numerical computing, especially in such areas as computational
sciences and climate modeling. In fact, it is the most commonly used numerical
programming language in existence.
COBOL Programming Language:
Business-Oriented Language, more commonly known as COBOL Language, is one of
the oldest programming languages in
existence. COBOL languages can primarily be found in areas like business and
finance for the government, as well as many companies. COBOL Language first
appeared in late 1959, after a short-range committee, formed during a meeting
at the Pentagon, was asked to recommend a new approach to a common business
BASIC Programming Language:
All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code (BASIC) is a family of easy-to-use
programming languages. Introduced in 1963, the initial purpose of this
high-level language was to make computers accessible to non-science students.
BASIC and its variations enjoyed widespread popularity for microcomputers in the 1970s. It gained a similar
level of popularity with personal
computers in the 80s.
PASCAL Programming Language:
Developed in 1970,
by Niklaus Wirth, Pascal is a computer programming
language. Pascal is an imperative language that is considered a viable option
for structured programming. The language’s original purpose was to help in
teaching structured programming concepts to college students. In fact, teachers
have employed it as an introductory programming language for many years. Though
it was created decades ago, versions of the language are still in use today, in
educational and software development sectors.
ADA Programming Language:
A high-level programming
language developed in the late 1970s and early 1980s for the United States
Defense Department. Ada was designed to be a
general-purpose language for everything from
business applications to rocket guidance systems. One of its
principal features is that it supports real-time applications.
In addition, Ada incorporates modular techniques that make it easier
to build and maintain large systems. Since 1986, Ada has been the mandatory
development language for most U.S. military applications. In addition, Ada is
often the language of choice for large systems that require real-time
processing, such as banking and air traffic control systems.
LISP Programming Language:
a family of computer programming languages based on formal functional
calculus. Lisp (for "List Processing Language") stores and
manipulates programs in the same manner as any other data, making it well
suited for "meta-programming" applications. One of the oldest
"high level" programming languages (second only to Fortran), Lisp
continues to be popular in the field of artificial intelligence down to the
C Programming Language:
C is a general-purpose computer programming language developed in 1972
by Dennis Ritchie at the Bell Telephone Laboratories for use with the UNIX operating
system. Although C was designed for implementing system software, it is also widely used for developing
portable application software. C
is one of the most popular programming languages and there are very
few computer architectures for
which a C compiler does not exist. C has greatly
influenced many other popular programming languages, most notably C++, which originally began as an
extension to C.
C++ Programming Language:
is a type of computer programming language. Created in 1983 by Bjarne
Stroustrup, C++ was designed to serve as an enhanced version of the C
programming language. C++ is object oriented and is considered a high level
language. However, it features low level facilities. C++ is one of the most
commonly used programming languages.